에르도안의 ‘제2의 분단국’ 對키프로스 외교정책은?
[아시아엔=파트마 수라 바흐시 터키 <하베르 아잔다 매거진> 기자] ?터키는 역사를 통해 정치 지정학, 전략 지정학상 여러 문명간의 교두보 역할을 해왔다. 터키는 뿌리 깊은 역사와 문화유산으로 국제사회에서 중요한 역할을 맡아왔으며 유럽과 아시아를 아우르는 다양한 정책을 추구해왔다.
지난 15년간 터키는 경제·군사·정치 및 사회발전을 이루어냈다. 하지만 서방국가들은 국제사회에서 터키에 대한 부정적인 인식을 끊임없이 생산해 왔다. 게다가 터키에서 일어난 테러사건들은 터키에게 안전하지 않은 국가라는 불명예를 입혀줬다.
터키는 역사문화적으로 오랜 동안 △키프러스 문제 △난민이슈 △테러문제 등에 직간접적으로 연관돼 왔다. 키프러스는 지중해와 중동 사이를 연결하는 지정학적으로 매우 중요한 위치에 있다. 특히 그리스와 터키 관계에 결정적인 요인이 되어왔다. 역사적으로 그리스는 한번도 키프러스를 지배한 적이 없다. 그러나 20세기 초반 키프러스에 거주하는 그리스인들이 그리스국가와의 통일을 시도해 결과적으로 그리스, 터키, 영국 사이의 협정이 이루어졌다.
그럼에도 그리스와 그리스계 키프로스인들은 터키인들의 안전을 위협하고 터키인들을 학살하는 일도 벌어졌다. 이 문제와 관련한 해결책을 찾기 위해 2000년대 초 스위스에서 새로운 협상이 시작됐다. 터키, 영국, 북키프러스의 터키공화국, 남키프러스의 그리스지역에서 온 전문가들이 이 협상에 참여하였다. 이 과정을 통해 키프러스 문제는 해결의 전환점을 어느 정도 찾게 된 것으로 평가된다.
터키는 키프러스 문제 해결은 평화적인 방식으로 진행돼야 한다는 입장을 견지하고 있다. 또 터키계 키프러스인들이 동등한 주권을 행사하기를 기대하고 있다.
그러나 키프러스 문제가 좀처럼 해결되지 않는 까닭에 키프러스섬의 불안은 계속되고 있으며 터키국가와 사회는 불이익을 감수해야 했다. 경제, 사회, 정치적으로 더 고통을 받는 쪽은 터키계였다.
따라서 터키는 기본적인 인권과 생명과 재산에 대한 보호, 정치적 독립, 그리고 터키인들에 대한 국제 인식에 대한 책임을 느끼지 않을 수 없다. 키프로스 문제의 영구적인 해결책이 과연 가능할는지, 그렇다면 언제쯤 이뤄질 지 계속 지켜봐야 할 것 같다.(번역 송혜원 <아시아엔> 미국통신원)
The Approach of Turkish Foreign Policy to the Cyprus Issue
? Fatma Sura Bahsi?- Haber Ajanda Magazine, Turkey
Throughout history, Turkey has served as a bridge between civilizations thanks to its geopolitical and geostrategic position. The country’s deeply rooted historical past and cultural heritage have led Turkey to be a key country also in terms of international relations. Turkey has been an important actor in the foreign policy relations of many States in the international arena. However, the divergence of Turkey from the traditional approach in foreign policy and the adoption of multi-faceted and active foreign policy approach have ensured it is becoming a powerful international actor at regional and global levels.
Having been pulled away from its sphere of influence in its region and developed transnational relations, Turkey has pursued multi-faceted policies ranging from Europe to Asia. In the past 15 years, Turkey has gained a sound momentum in terms of its economic, military, political and social dynamics. This growth and development have strengthened recognition of Turkey and the interest by other nations and its fields of cooperation. However, Western countries(or actors, in particular) have also tried to build a negative perception of Turkey in the international arena. Moreover, the terrorist actions that have taken place in this country and many regions in the world have triggered this intended negative perception. Yet, terrorist actions can take place anywhere at any moment in most regions of the world. Certain powers wishing to create chaos in Turkey’s domestic and foreign policy and to disrupt its stability do not avoid describing Turkey as an insecure country. They plan to tarnish Turkey’s image by supporting terrorism themselves.
Whilst struggling especially with the long-standing Syrian crisis, refugee issue, and terrorism problems in its region, Turkey has also been involved in the problems on the lands, to which it is culturally and historically tied to.
Cyprus is one such land. Cyprus is located within a significant geographical region which connects and ensures communication between the Mediterranean and the Middle East where important energy reserves exist and are produced. Cyprus has also been a significant determinant of the relations between Greece and Turkey.
Throughout history, Greece has never had a right of ownership in Cyprus. However, since the first half of the 20th century, it has started to provoke the Greeks in Cyprus and attempted to unite the Greek part with Greece. As a result of these actions of Greece(a state which grants rights to Turks and Greeks living in Cyprus and to which Greece, Turkey, and the United Kingdom) guarantors was founded. But Greece and Greek Cypriot were involved in activities damaging the safety of the life and goods of Turkish citizens and even massacred the Turkish population.
Turkey endeavored in the provision of peace and solution in Cyprus Island, but international actors, including the EU, neglected the dominance of Turks in Cyprus and avoided following policies for stability and resolution of this issue. A permanent solution for Cyprus has not been found and the issue has not been able to go beyond international negotiations. In this regard, a new process of negotiation in Switzerland has been initiated to find a solution to this issue. Experts from Turkey, United Kingdom, Greece, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and Southern Greek Region participated in these negotiations. In the negotiation meeting, it was decided that both sides would change their maps, which would be kept in the UN’s safe. This progress can be considered a turning point with regards to the Cyprus issue.
Contrary to what has been attempted to reflect the international communities, Turkey has always focused on peace and resolution in Cyprus. Reaching a resolution in Cyprus will ensure the Turkish Cypriots have the equal and sovereign rights and have a say in the intended Joint State. Consequently, Turkish Cypriots will be freed from the long-lasting economic isolation they have been facing at international levels and will become a part of the international society. Also, this issue which has remained unsolved for years in Cyprus has resulted in instability in the island and has been disadvantageous to the states and communities, which are parties. In this period, it was the Turkish side that suffered the most economically, socially and politically. Therefore, Turkey feels responsible for protecting the fundamental human rights, the safety of life and goods, political independence and sovereignty, and international image of the Turkish people and their kin living in the island due to their cultural and historical bonds. While providing this protection, Turkey also avoids adopting policies restraining the rights and liberties of the Greek Cypriots. We will see whether a permanent solution will be found in Cyprus in the following days.